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Identification of vivianite, an unusual blue pigment, in a sixteenth century painting and its implications

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Referência António João Cruz, Erica Eires, Luís Dias, Teresa Desterro, Carla Rego, "Identification of vivianite, an unusual blue pigment, in a sixteenth century painting and its implications", Color Research & Application, 43(2), 2018, pp. 177-183, doi:10.1002/col.22181
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Abstract Vivianite, a blue pigment employed in the past practically only in Northern and Central Europe, but with very limited use, was identified in an early sixteenth century painting, stylistically with Flemish features, from a church in Portugal. The identification of this iron phosphate mineral was made by SEM‐EDS based on the atomic ratio between phosphorus and iron in layers of blue paint (area analysis) and in particles of these same layers (spot analysis). This painting, about which there is no document to prove its authorship, becomes the first case, known in detail, of a sixteenth century painting containing vivianite. Moreover, this find and the presence of a chalk ground, also identified, strongly support the hypothesis of being a Flemish painting.
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